Month: March 2021

Reflections of Private Pilot Flight Training

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It was on a mild, flawlessly-blue, September 29, 1995 day that I pulled into the modern State University of New York-College of Technology at Farmingdale Aviation Center on Long Island’s Route 110, experiencing a degree of trepidation, that I began my Private Pilot Flight Training Program. That it technically constituted a “class” required for my Associate in Applied Science Degree in Aerospace Technology, shared with others I knew from the main campus facilities about two miles away, significantly extended the realm of experiential education beyond what could have been considered “routine.” That I had already had a decade-and-a-half international airline career at JFK International Airport certainly qualified it as a life-consistent theme. However, I was about to assume the pilot’s seat this time.

Greeted by my Certified Flight Instructor (CFI), I was told to take the apocopate Pilot Operating Handbook (POH) from the Aviation Center and deposit it into the respective aircraft on the ramp. My initial and introductory lesson would be in a Cessna C-172 Skyhawk, registered N73334, a high-wing, four-seat, general aviation airplane powered by a single 160-hp, dual-bladed Avco Lycoming O-320-H2AD piston engine. Its design and performance parameters were many: its maximum useful load was 910 pounds; its maximum take off weight was 2,300 pounds; its fuel capacity was 43 gallons; its maximum speed was 125 knots; its sea level rate of climb was 770 fpm; and its service ceiling was 14,200 feet.

Checklist in hand, I made a clockwise pre-flight inspection, from propeller to flight surfaces to sumping the fuel to verify its clarity, before assuming the left seat and shoulder- and seatbelt-harnessing myself in it.

“Prop clear!” I yelled to alert anyone in its vicinity of its imminent start, resulting in the engine’s grunting and grounding into slipstream-generating, elevator-bathing life. The aircraft felt alive and I was in control of it.

Requesting taxi clearance from the Aviation Center on the Republic Airport Ground frequency, I released the toe brakes without pushing the power lever further in and the rotating propeller naturally pulled the aircraft into movement along the ramp at a brisk walk’s pace.

Temptation to steer with the yoke had to be resisted: it only deflected the ailerons for in-flight banking and did nothing on the ground. Rudder pedal movements ensured the nose wheel’s direction.

Nudging onto the run-up pad near Runway 1’s threshold, I performed a full flight check-from brakes to magnetos to freedom of flight surface movement to adjustment of the altimeter’s current barometric pressure–and then switched to the Republic Tower frequency, inching on to the runway and receiving take off clearance.

Full engine power deafened the cockpit, sent a torrent of air over its aerodynamic surfaces, and propelled the high-wing aircraft into acceleration. Almost immeasurable rudder pedal pressures enabled me to keep the nose wheel on the center line, while the wheel itself, beginning to jump off the ground, was the Cessna’s signal that it had gained enough speed to surrender to flight.

A gentle pull of the yoke and a right rudder pedal depression to counteract the propeller’s torque, released it from its gravity constraints several thousand feet before the runway’s end, as I “rode the ball,” trying to keep it centered.

Ignorant of procedure, I banked to the right, upon which my flight instructor advised, “Maintain runway heading until you clear it.”

The ground receded and the sky’s blue purity became the new dimension of flight.

Climbing to 2,200 feet and reducing power to level off, I crossed Long Island to the Northport Stacks, as my instructor demonstrated banks and descents. The one-hour introductory flight passed rapidly.

Re-approaching Republic Airport, I radioed, “Republic tower, this is Cessna 73334, inbound for landing.”

Clearance was given to “continue.”

Unable, in my novice state, to actually execute the landing, I was nevertheless given the opportunity to fly a right-hand pattern, consisting of downwind, base, and final legs, the latter of which required progressive trailing edge flap extensions, which could only be counteracted by a push of the yoke to avoid the nose-rising tendency. A power reduced round out and flare reprofiled the aircraft into its immediate take off rotation angle and stripped it of its airspeed, enabling it to gently touch down on its main wheels. Brake application-assisted deceleration and a turn off to the taxiway preceded a frequency change to Republic Ground, which granted clearance to return to the Aviation Center while I “cleaned up” the aircraft by retracting its flaps. A pull of the power lever starved the engine of its fuel and all vibration, noise, and slipstream ceased.

A debriefing and logbook entry took place inside.

The following week’s lesson entailed operation of the smaller, two-seat Cessna 152, registered N67856, with a takeoff from the reciprocal of Runaway 1-in this case, 19-and a cruise to Long Island’s south practice area over Jones Beach-connecting, erector set resembling Captree Bridge. The return required the radioing of, “Republic Tower, this is Cessna 67856 over Captree, inbound for landing.”

The five-session, 5.7-hour flight training course, designated “Introduction to Flight I” and running from September 29 to October 27, also involved aircraft N757AA, another C-152, and the curriculum entailed the four fundamentals of flight, minimum controllable airspeed, 30-degree banks, approaches to stalls, descents, and landings on Runway 14.

The succeeding six-flight, six-hour “Introduction to Flight II” course, running from February 27 to April 19, 1996, entailed all Cessna 172 aircraft, although in two registered N734HD and N1517E I had not yet flown. I was also introduced to a new flight instructor.

Although the standard curriculum included such practice maneuvers as traffic pattern flying slow-flight, and coordinated flight, a man-machine merge in continually changing meteorological conditions created some challenging moments.

A half-hour sector on Marah 15 in aircraft N734HD, for instance, prompted a rapid return after take off in rain and nothing more than a traffic pattern circuit because of low, visual flight rule (VFR)-threatening conditions.

Coordinated flight on April 12 in aircraft N1517E over the north practice area was made amid a soupy overcast and 35-knot winds blowing from the forward, right side, buttressing the Skyhawk and rendering it difficult to maintain control.

And the following week’s sortie, with N734HD on April 19, entailed the grinding roar of the engine when it was throttled to a setting above 2,200 rpm, leaving the flight instructor to take control and immediately return to Republic Airport from the south practice area, all the while at a slight climb angle. An engine inspection was clearly in order afterwards.

The fall 1996 semester’s “Primary Flight I” course, with the same flight instructor and the Cessna 172s with which I had now become familiar, entailed eight sectors and 8.7 hours during the September 19 to December 5, 1996 period. It included some of its own surprises and challenging situations.

On two occasions-September 19 and November 1-both with aircraft N734HD, I flew 15,.5 nautical miles airline-reminiscent sectors from Farmingdale’s Republic Airport to Islip’s Long Island MacArthur and landed before return. During the first, I made crosswind take offs and landings, the latter with only ten degrees of flap, and was introduced to radio communication in Class C airspace. Upon return from the second I made a left downwind turn beneath clouds that were at 1,600 feet, experiencing moderate turbulence, a 50-degree crosswind at 25 knots gusting to 32, wind shear on final, the incessant blare of the stall warning horn, the left wing’s continual dip to the ground, and insufficient rudder travel, causing my flight instructor to desperately assume control and correct each lateral axis upset until enough airspeed had been bled off to flare and snatch Republic’s Runway 32 with its main wheels.

The rest of the fall curriculum involved the more “mundane” maneuvers of airspeed and configuration changes, 45-degree banks, s-turns, and turns-around-a-point.

The spring 1997 continuation of “Primary Flight I,” spanning the four-month period from January 27 to May 12, included eight sectors and 7.7 hours, and the re-introduction of my original flight instructor. The first three flights were made in aircraft N734HD, with the remaining five in N1517E, all obviously Cessna 172s. Its lessons included climbing and descending turns, tracking, air traffic control procedures, straight-and-level flight, airport entries, an inadvertent plunge into cloud-causing instrument meteorological (IMC) conditions, and a rapid, short-final descent from 1,200 feet to Republic Airport’s Runway 14.

Coupled with a private rental of a C-172 Skyhawk from Republic’s Nassau Flyers fixed base operator (FBO) back on January 30, 1996 (registered N5700E) for a one-hour Long Island South Short cruise, during which one of my airline colleagues constituted my first “passenger,” my flight training program concluded with 32 sectors and 29 hours in my logbook.

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The History of Midway Airlines

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Airline Origins and Service Inauguration:

Chicago-based Midway Airlines, which plied the skies for a dozen years, was the first deregulation-spawned start-up to enter service, paving the way for the multitude of other similar-strategy carriers that followed. In a way, it represented all of them, sparking a resurgence of vacated, underutilized airports they claimed as their operational bases, and it taught important lessons about such airlines. Ultimately, it demonstrated the underlying forces of US deregulation. Its history may have been brief, but it was characterized by aircraft, destination, and strategy changes, as it sought to determine its niche and profitably fill it.

Founded on August 6, 1976 by Irving Tague, a former Hughes Airwest executive, to offer low-fare, high-frequency, no-frills, single-class service with a fleet of used McDonnell-Douglas DC-9s and to re-establish its virtually dormant, but city-vicinity Chicago South Side namesake airport, thus avoiding congestion and competition from incumbent carriers using O’Hare International and taking advantage of lower landing fees and terminal facility prices in the process.

Its story was, to a degree, almost as much about an airport as it was about an airline. Once “the” area airfield, it lost all of its tenants at the end of the 1950s when O’Hare was completed, leaving Northwest Orient as the only remaining thread to its pistonliner past.

Tague, resultantly, saw Midway Airport as an opportunity and an uncongested alternative, re-injecting it with passenger purpose the same way Southwest Airlines had re-established Dallas-Love Field. Harnessing deregulation’s freedoms, he endeavored to link the airline and airfield with a common name and cause.

Wings would be provided by five former TWA DC-9-15s, featuring a five-abreast, single-class, 86-seat interior-only one row short of its 90-passenger maximum-and most of their previous owner’s color scheme, but externally they reflected their “Rainbow Jet” designation by displaying a vibrant livery.

Inaugurating scheduled service from Midway Airport on November 1, 1979, Midway, the airline, offered multiple daily frequencies to the midwestern cities of Cleveland, Detroit, and Kansas City, and treated its passengers to complementary soft drinks, juices, coffee, tea, peanuts, and snack trays of breadsticks and cheddar cheese spread. An attempt to subsequently touch down in Minneapolis was unsuccessful, resulting in its discontinuation after a short period.

Its low-fare service concept, however, was successful, sparking rapid growth to other destinations and demand that could only be satisfied with the acquisition of stretched-fuselage, 115-passenger, uprated JT8D-powered DC-9-30s, whose approach and landing speeds remained comparable to its initial DC-9-15s’ with full-span leading edge slats.

Midway Airport’s Concourse A, its flight converging point, progressively fielded an increased number of flights and frequencies to both midwestern and northeastern cities, such as New York-La Guardia, serving as the connecting point between them.

As would repeatedly play out in deregulation skies, Midway soon adopted a fight-for-survival strategy, since long-established Chicago hub carriers American and United-albeit at O’Hare-temporarily lowered their fares to retain and, in some cases, regain market share, leaving Midway’s load factors and profitability to slip away.

The Multiple Strategies:

Its decline, it was determined, was the result of its no-frills, low-fare structure, so prevalent within the deregulation airline arena. It was not always the most apocopate one in all markets, especially those involving higher yield business passengers whose expensive accounts covered higher fares with the expectation of superior comfort and service. It was this strategy with which Midway tried to compete, admittedly with “O’Hare operators that offered size, route structure, and brand loyalty fostering frequent flyer programs. It was little more than a shadow to them.

In order to more effectively compete, if not altogether survive, it needed to embark upon a systematic analysis of its makeup, discarding those aspects that were ineffective in such a specialized environment and replace them with those that were.

The result was Midway Metrolink, a concept that expressed its ability to “link” the major “metro”politan centers with the more convenient, hassle-free Midway Airport. Its advertisements depicted the toss of cabin seats through its aircraft doors and their replacement with business-attracting elements.

Internally, comforts included four-abreast leather seats, eliminating the dreaded middle one, increased legroom, larger carry-on luggage space, and garment closets, and externally its new image was expressed by a conservative, cream colored livery.

Improved inflight service featured light, chilled meals appropriate to the time of day, wines, hot towels, and chocolate mints.

The amenities, as expected, were praised and fostered higher load factors, yet costs were counterbalanced by higher daily aircraft utilization, from six to 9.5 hours, which facilitated increased frequencies.

Annual passenger figures clearly reflected Midway’s growth-from 56,000 in 1979 to 464,521 in 1980 and 885,739 in 1981. In 1982 it topped one million.

By 1984, operating a 19-strong fleet comprised of 60-pasenger DC-9-15s, 84-passenger DC-9-30s, and 120-passenger MD-80s, it served Cleveland, Dallas, Detroit, Kansas City, Minneapolis, Newark, New York-La Guardia, Philadelphia, Topeka, and Washington-National with 125 daily departures to and from Chicago Midway Airport.

It reflected the quality of its new strategy with the slogan, “The intelligent approach to air travel.”

Assets of failing and bankrupt carriers, including aircraft, airport facilities, and routes, at bargain basement prices provided opportunities for healthy ones to expand, and Midway did not hesitate to avail itself of this opportunity after Air Florida filed for Chapter 11 on July 3, 1984, enabling it to balance its business-oriented midwestern and northeastern routes with leisure ones to Florida and the US Virgin Islands.

The move, sparking its third strategy after its Rainbow Jet and Metrolink ones, entailed operation of its first non-McDonnell-Douglas aircraft-in this case, the Boeing 737-200-which accommodated 128 passengers in a six-abreast configuration. Although they were painted in the same cream livery and retained the light meal service, they operated under the “Midway Express” banner alongside the pure Midway Metrolink one.

The airline was, in effect, subdivided by aircraft type, seating density, passenger and route category, and brand identity, resulting in an airline within an airline.

The Metrolink strategy, in the meantime, was itself only partially successful. While load factors were high on morning and evening flights as businessmen traveled to and from their companies’ corporate offices for the day, the period in-between attracted fewer passengers, leaving Midway to counteract the revenue loss with a reversion to five-abreast seating, its fourth strategy. The improved Metrolink service was retained, but, as occurred during the Rainbow Jet period, higher yield travelers lost their coveted comfort and legroom.

Other revenue eroding circumstances also arose, and they involved its route system. Because passengers traveled to its Florida and Caribbean sunspots to escape winter temperatures, its flights were full during this season, but not necessarily during the rest of the year, and the desired West Coast could not be reached with the range restrictions of its DC-9s.

Neither situation was particularly addressable with its current equipment, but it did seek to improve the business-leisure yield duality with the first true two-class cabin interiors that increased capacity to 75 in its DC-9-15s and 97 in its DC-9-30s with forward, four-abreast MetroClub and main, five-abreast MetroClass sections, resulting in its fifth strategy. Its now signature light cuisine was retained.

Although the 737-200s still offered six-abreast, 128-passenger cabins, the Midway Express and Midway Metrolink designations were eliminated.

By December of 1985, its DC-9s served 22 destinations from Chicago, including Boston, Cleveland, Dallas, Detroit, Ft. Lauderdale, Ft. Myers, Kansas City, Minneapolis, New Orleans, New York-La Guardia, Philadelphia, Washington-National, and White Plains, offering some 70 daily departures, while its single-class 737s concentrated on the seven Ft. Lauderdale, Miami, Orlando, St. Croix, St, Thomas, Tampa, and West Palm Beach Florida and Caribbean cities.

Midway’s slogan at this time was “Our spirit will lift you.”

A sixth strategy, implemented in early 1987, once again saw it come full cycle. Because the single and dual class cabins of its nine DC-9-15s, 11 DC-9-30s, and ten 737-200s limited their route type and destination utilization, they were reconfigured yet again, the single-class concept now re-introduced, which provided ultimate network flexibility. Capacity increased to 83 and 115 in its short- and long-fuselage DC-9s, yet decreased to 122 in its 737s. Service differentiation in its two classes had only been reduced to seating and this lack had failed to attract sufficient front cabin load factors.

The brand, simply designated “Midway” and identified by a new red and white livery, eliminated class, seating, and name disparity, but it served a few new destinations, such as Denver, Indianapolis, and Las Vegas.

Now operating from both Concourse A and B gates, Midway had begun to re-establish its namesake airport the same way PEOPLExpress had at Newark. Its 1981 passenger throughput increased from 1,773,207 in 1981 to just under three million four years later, and lone Northwest had been joined by America West, Continental, Southwest, and United, which collectively carried 20 percent of the traffic. Midway, having firmly established a hub, controlled a full 80 percent of it–an accomplishment which had required six strategies, three paint schemes, two names, two sub-brands, and two basic aircraft types to achieve.

In order to continue expanding, it followed the mandate of the often-recited mantra of, “You have to feed the hub,” and did so by acquiring the assets of the former Allegheny Commuter operator that enabled it to serve routes too thin and too short for its jet fleet. Branded “Midway Connection” and constituting its seventh strategy, it commenced Chicago-serving fights on June 15, 1987 with seven high-wing, twin-turboprop, 19-passenger Dornier Do-228-200 aircraft, initially from half a dozen communities.

Twenty-five major business and vacation destinations in the US and the Caribbean were otherwise served with its DC-9 and 737 aircraft from 21 gates at that time.

In 1985, Midway posted its first, albeit tiny, profit in a three-year period, of $52,000, but this increased to $9 million in 1986 and $10.8 million in 1987. Fleet size, load factor, and annual passengers carried had all steadily increased, from 26, 50.2 percent, and 1,387,978, respectively, in 1984 to 27, 58.2 percent, and 1,748,942 in 1985 and 29, 58.9 percent, and 2,719,269 in 1986.

Restricted by capacity and range, it addressed its fleet deficiency for the first time with a new aircraft order-in this case, for eight confirmed and 28 optioned McDonnell-Douglas MD-87s-in the fourth quarter of 1988. Quieter, larger, and more fuel-efficient, they would enable it to serve any of its routes with full payloads.

The previous year it had carried almost 3.5 million passengers, a 26.2-percent increase over the year-earlier period, and employed 2,460. This growth merited even greater capacity than its just-ordered MD-87s, prompting it to convert its 29 options to full-size MD-80s, powered by refanned Pratt and Whitney JT8D-217 engines.

By September of 1988, Midway served 49 destinations in the US, the Bahamas, and the Caribbean, of which 17 were Midway Connection turboprop routes and eight were to Florida, more than any other Chisago-originating airline. Hourly shuttle flights were offered to Detroit and Minneapolis, mostly with short-fuselage DC-9-15s.

November 1, 1989 marked its one-decade anniversary, which it proclaimed with the slogan, “Ten years of spirit.”

Expansion, for a second time by means of undervalued assets of a failing carrier, occurred when it took advantage of Eastern’s $213 million package that consisted of its passenger, cargo, and maintenance facilities in Philadelphia, 16 Midway compatible DC-9-30s, engines, and spare parts, two transborder routes to Montreal and Toronto, and two lucrative slots at both New York-La Guardia and Washington-National airports.

The strategy, its seventh, gave it a second hub, an east coast route concentration, and Canadian reach, all without the otherwise protracted expansion period required if it had attempted to do so from scratch. It also avoided any aircraft, facility, frequency, service, or employee reductions at his exiting Chisago hub in the process.

The deal, concluded in October of 1988, additionally enabled it to make more cost-effective use of its Boston and Florida stations.

As the fourth largest metropolitan area in the country, Philadelphia provided an immediate origin-and-destination passenger base not reliant upon connecting traffic.

Its first wave of expansion entailed inaugurating 12 daily round trips to seven Florida cities on November 15, which added to its six already existing flights from Philadelphia to Chicago, and by the end of the year this had increased to 33 to Albany, Boston, Ft. Lauderdale, Ft. Myers, Hartford, Miami, Orlando, Rochester, Sarasota, Tampa, and West Palm Beach.

The first quarter of 1990 saw it connect the City of Brotherly Love with Jacksonville, Savannah, and Providence in the US and Montreal and Toronto in Canada. Its north-south route flow balanced the Chicago hub’s east-west one.

Concurrent with this accelerated expansion was a fleet modernization program, which saw it take delivery of eight 120-passenger MD-87s between March of 1989 and January of 1990 and enabled it to increase its nonstop Chicago-California routes. The quieter, higher capacity aircraft constituted the first of its 37-firm and 37-optioned MD-80 order, the remaining 29 of which were full fuselage length, 143-seat MD-82s, toward which three MD-83s and two MD-88s, the latter with glass cockpits, were intermittently leased.

By the end of 1990, its fleet consisted of nine DC-9-15s, 37 DC-9-30s, ten 737-200s, eight MD-87s, four MD-82s, three MD-83s, and two MD-88s.

Its Springfield, Illinois-based Midway Connection division played an increasingly important role in its Chicago hub feed, its 21 Do-228-200s serving 20 cities in four states within a 250-mile radius and carrying 550,000 passengers in 1989 alone. Sixty-five percent of them connected to Midway jet flights.

Addressing its own needs, Midway placed a 33-firm and 40-optioned order, worth $250 million, for Dornier Do-328 high-wing, twin-turboprops intended for delivery between 1993 and 1996. Successors to the Do-228s, they offered three-abreast, 30-passenger cabins with standup headroom, galleys, lavatories, and flight attendant service, enabling it to offer more comfort consistent standards between its jet and turboprop fleets. The type would also enable it to substitute more appropriately sized aircraft during low-demand, off-peak times, such as at midday.

In order to plug the capacity gap, Midway subleased a dozen 30-passenger Embraer EMB-120s from West German regional carrier DLT, taking delivery of nine in 1990 and the remaining three the following year.

Single- and dual-class cabins had factored into its decade of evolution on several occasions and it reverted to the latter once again on November 1, 1989, marking its eighth strategy. As had previously been proven, major carrier-comparable amenities, particularly in the form of a first or business class section that offered increased service and comfort, was vital if Midway wished to play in their league, since it was in the process of growing into it. First class upgrades constituted one of the most important rewards for frequent flyer members.

All of its aircraft were reconfigured with a four-abreast, two-row, eight-seat forward section, with the balance of capacity varying according to type: 70 in the DC-9-15, 90 in the DC-9-30, 105 in the 737-200, 112 in the MD-87, and 135 in the MD-82. All except the 737 were in five-abreast coach arrangements.

West Coast route expansion begin in May of 1990 with three daily Chicago-Los Angeles MD-87 frequencies. So popular was it, that it was progressively increased to four and then five.

Its growth was reflected by its later-year fleet size and annual passenger statistics, respectively totaling 29 and 2.8 million in 1986, 49 and 3.8 million in 1987, 61 and 4.7 million in 1988, and 82 and 5.2 million in 1989.

By March 15, 1990, Midway and Midway Commuter collectively served 59 cities in 24 states, the District of Columbia, the Bahamas, the US Virgin Islands, and Canada, of which 41 saw mainline jet operations. They included Albany, Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Cleveland, Columbus, Dallas, Denver, Des Moines, Detroit, Freeport. Ft. Lauderdale, Ft. Myers, Hartford, Jacksonville, Kansas City, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Memphis, Miami, Minneapolis, Montreal, Nassau, New Orleans, New York, Omaha, Orlando, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Providence, Rochester, Savannah, St. Croix, St Thomas, Tampa, Toronto, Washington, and West Palm Beach.

Midway had, as a byproduct of its own growth, resurrected its hub airport from its post-O’Hare, virtual ghost town period to one which offered more comparable service, carriers, and connections. In 1980, Midway’s first full year of operations, its throughput was 609,000 passengers. Nine years later that figure had skyrocketed to eight million, or only two million short of its 1959 piston pinnacle figures, but seven times lower than O’Hare’s annual 59 million. Midway itself carrier 65 percent of the traffic, with 35 percent handled by the balance of the nine other carriers, which included Allegheny Commuter, Canadian Airlines International, Comair, Continental, Northwest, Southwest, TWA, United, and USAir.

Now an integral part of the US air transportation system, it owed its regrowth to Midway Airlines, which offered almost 500 daily systemwide flights and ranked third in size of the Chicago-based carriers after United and American.

Demise and Deregulation Lessons:

All of these figures were superlative and promising, except one-Midway’s financial ones. It was losing almost $1 million a day.

Its acquisition of the Philadelphia hub at a time when fuel prices increased because of the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and competition from USAir there prompted its October 1990 sale of it to them for $67.5 million. The following year’s recession and declining load factors forced it into Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in March. Its overexpansion, the Gulf War’s effects, and competition from the established, more financially sound airlines all sealed its fate.

Despite potential promise of a takeover by Northwest, which constituted its last ditch effort at survival when it assumed $153 million of its debt, it rejected the deal on November 12, 1991 and Midway Airlines ceased to exist the following day.

“As a result of Northwest Airlines’ unilateral decision to withdraw from its commitment to acquire substantially off of Midway’s assets, effective midnight, Wednesday, November 13, Midway will cease operations,” it said in a statement. “Midway deeply regrets the inconvenience it caused to our loyal customers by the cancellation of all Midway service.”

Ironically, the airline that rescued an airport could not be rescued itself. Its meteoric, multiple-strategy rise-and-fall was brief, spanning only a dozen years, but it left a legacy by teaching several lessons.

Although it employed the low-fare, no-frills, used-aircraft model subsequently adopted by numerous other deregulation-spawned carriers, that strategy, first and foremost, was not always successful in markets which competed with major, established, well-financed ones that offered frequent flyer programs and improved comfort and service to high yield business travelers on expense accounts.

Secondly, its continual strategy changes attempted to achieve profitability in a very competitive environment, but only dual cabin classes could satisfy high- and low-yield executive and leisure passenger-and not necessarily on all routes, such as those to the Florida sunspots, which themselves were subjected to seasonality.

As had occurred with Southwest at Dallas-Love Field, PEOPLExpress at Newark International, and Northeastern at Islip’s Long Island MacArthur Airport, Midway was able to resurrect an uncongested, underutilized, almost-dormant airfield by taking advantage of its lower landing fees and ground facility costs, attracting passengers and, ultimately, other operators with its low-fare service. Its common goal of both airline and airport growth was briefly successful in the first case and ultimately so in the second one.

It often expanded with the acquisition of bargain basement assets of failing airlines, such as those of Air Florida and Eastern, until it itself became fodder to surviving entities.

Finally, it demonstrated deregulation’s David and Goliath theme, whose opportunities, if adequately financed, enabled a long list of upstart airlines with numerous structures to expand until the majors, now threatened by them, either defeated them or absorbed them, once again proving the fundamental Darwinian truth of survival of the fittest.

Midway, the first deregulation carrier, wrote the story that was repeated and replayed until the last one lost its wings.

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How to Reach Chicago From Newark by Flights?

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We all need to travel, either for work or for inner peace. Sometimes, we just need to pack our bags and get out of the town we are living in for some change. When an exciting trip beckons you, you cannot but answer its call. If you are a resident of Newark, a cheap flight from Newark to the beautiful destination of Chicago is all you need for a fresh start. Before you pack your suitcase and head to explore Chicago, you need to finish your Newark to Chicago flight booking in order to ensure a hassle-free travel experience.

We all know that Newark is the United States of America’s most populous city. If you are looking for an escapade to a beautiful destination, far from the madding crowd of Newark, Chicago is an ideal place to go. Chicago is a traveler’s paradise for its endless attractions for people belonging to all age groups and of various tastes. The state has lakeside parks, breathtaking destinations, delicious food, world-class museums, public parks, superior places to shop, friendly folks. So, finish your Newark to Chicago flight booking and explore its tourist destinations with your near and dear ones.

The time taken to reach Chicago from Newark via flight varies from airline to airline. However, it takes nearly 2 hours and 24 minutes to reach Chicago from Newark via flight. The distance between these two places is 1,139 kilometers. As the route is quite popular, flights are available every day. There are several other points that need to be considered before thinking about Newark to Chicago flight booking. If you are wondering about flight reliability, Southwest flights from Newark to the state of Chicago are most reliable. This means the southwest flights always depart on time and reach the destination on time. Flights on this particular route are not delayed or canceled quite often unless due to inclement weather or other unavoidable conditions.

Airports in Chicago where flights land from Newark

Here is a list of the three biggest commercial airports that carry passengers from Newark to Chicago. You can choose one of these for traveling to Chicago from New Jersey’s Newark:

•Chicago O’Hare International (ORD) Airport
•Rockford International (RFD) Airport
•Chicago Midway International (MDW) Airport

Do your Newark to Chicago flight booking three months in advance for getting best deals and cheap flights. There are several online companies that help you book your flight in a hassle-free manner.

The Newark International Airport

The Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) is an airport that provides service in New Jersey, a state in the U.S. The airport is has been constructed in the border region between two famous cities of America, Elizabeth, and Newark. So, both the cities jointly own this airport. All flights for Newark to Chicago flight booking depart from the Newark International Airport. As it is an international airport, it offers all modern amenities and advanced facilities to the passengers. There are three terminals and top destinations that people travel to from Newark are Illinois, San Francisco, Orlando, Atlanta, Denver, Boston, Los Angeles, Charlotte etc.

The O’Hare International Airport in Chicago (ORD)

The O’Hare Airport is situated in Illinois, which is in the Northwestern side of Chicago. This airport has been providing service since the year 1944. O’Hare offers direct flights to 217 destinations in Europe, Africa, South America, North America and Asia. The airport has four passenger terminals and 191 gates in total. During Newark to Chicago flight booking, you will find that majority of the flights are from Newark (EWR) to the O’Hare International Airport (ORD) in Chicago.

Airlines that carry passengers from Newark to Chicago

There are several good airlines that have been carrying passengers from Newark to Chicago for years. If you are confused about which airline to travel with, you need to research well before proceeding with your Newark to Chicago flight booking. Airlines differ from each other on the basis of the service that they offer their customers. Multiple airlines offer diverse levels of service and comfort. So, you can choose one based on your convenience and requirements.

How to choose an airline for traveling from Newark to Chicago?

Whether you are traveling for business or for a vacation, selecting the right airline is mandatory in order to avoid stress and anxiety. Once you have decided that you will travel from Newark to Chicago and selected the date as well, you need to choose a good airline from thousands of options. Here are some tips that can help you select an airline for doing Newark to Chicago Flight Booking:

1.Price of tickets

The main thing that people consider while booking flight tickets is the price of tickets. At the end of the day, we all want the best facilities at the most affordable rates. So, when you choose an airline, take help of a travel manager for getting an advantageous deal. Though direct flights are costlier than the ones that include stopovers, choosing a direct flight will be worth your money.

2.Remain flexible

During Newark to Chicago flight booking, try to keep the date of your journey flexible for getting additional discounts. Prices of fight tickets keep changing depending on several factors. While you browse through the prices, you’ll see that the day on which you are planning to travel has flight tickets at 20% higher prices from the previous day. So, plan your trip accordingly.

3.Compare seats

If you find two or more airlines that offer tickets within your budget, it is time to compare other facilities like seats, in-flight entertainment, and food. Pick the flight that offers more comfort with in-flight entertainment and ample leg room at an affordable price.

4.Compare different sites

You need to compare several travel sites before completing Newark to Chicago flight booking. Consulting multiple travel sites will let you know about the best offers and cheapest flight tickets available on the scheduled day of your flight.

5.Buy tickets in advance

If you book your ticket three months before the day of your journey, it will cost you far less than last minute bookings.

For more detail visit flightsbird or dial our Toll Free number 1800-666-8300.

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Must-See Places in Thailand Everyone Should Explore

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From mountains and beaches to energetic cities, wildlife-rich national parks and cute towns, everyone can find something to enjoy in Thailand. It is a bucket-list vacation spot for hundreds of thousands of people and offers some of the best streets in the world. You can escape to the land of smiles and it certainly won’t disappoint you.
Some of the must-see places that you should check out are:

Phuket

The largest island in the country and one of the most popular ones, Phuket boasts many faces. You can head towards the thronging sands of Patong as the area is known for its water sports and hedonistic nightlife. There are also beaches that can be enjoyed if that’s what you are in the mood for. You can chill on Karon Beach, take a boat to the beautiful Freedom Beach or check out the breathtaking views at Kathu Beach. When it comes to entertainment, Phuket can offer you clubs and bars of all kinds, eateries offering global cuisines and world class shows. You can also participate in activities like go karting, hiking, snorkeling, fishing, ethical elephant interactions and jet skiing.

Ayutthaya

Listed by UNESCO, Ayutthaya is one of the ancient cities of Thailand and is a must-see place for history lovers. You can reach the evocative ruins easily via Bangkok and they let you take a trip back in time to Siam’s golden age. One highlight is Wat Yai Chai Mongkorn boasting tall stupas that can be climbed. A visit to the Old Portuguese and Dutch areas is also worth checking out and you can pick up some souvenirs from the floating market.

Krabi

One of the most popular provinces of Southern Thailand, Krabi can provide a wealth of terrific experiences on its islands and on the mainland. Often referred to as one of the most picturesque islands of Thailand, Koh Phi Phi should definitely be on your list. A more laid-back island, Koh Lanta offers long and sandy beaches, mangroves, chilled-out beach bars and a Moken community. Some lesser-visited islands include Koh Rok and Koh Jum. As far as the mainland is concerned, Railay is a paradise for those who love rock climbing. Krabi Town gives you a local vibe whereas Ao Nang is a wonderful beach resort.

Mae Hong Son

A remote and mountainous province in Northern Thailand, Mae Hong Son and Myanmar share a border. Therefore, you will find that most of the people in the area belong to the Shan ethnic group. The beautiful architecture and nature of the provincial town make it a great stop on your travels. Pai is the main draw of the province, which is popular amongst people who love a laid-back life and enjoy nature. It was a popular hippie hangout at some point and its main features include hot springs, Pai canyon and waterfalls. You can go fun tubing along the river or go for hiking.

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